Dairy products are the main part of functional foods. Designing and developing new functions in dairy products means modifying and enriching their natural and healthy properties. Functionality is the future development trend of the food industry, and functional dairy products, as a pioneer in the functionalization of the food industry, have greatly promoted the development of the functional food industry.
1. Status of the dairy market
In the international dairy product market, dry dairy products occupy a major position, while liquid milk has a relatively small market share. From the perspective of international consumption demand, the consumption demand of dairy products in my country and other emerging dairy countries will show a significant growth trend, but the annual per capita consumption is lower than other developed countries. From the perspective of the domestic market, both the consumption of dairy products and per capita consumption in my country are showing a trend of steady growth, but the development speed is affected by many factors, and there will be instability and fluctuations. Throughout the development of the past 20 years, the annual per capita consumption of dairy products has increased by nearly 20%, and dairy consumption as a whole has ushered in a new period of development.
The quality and variety of dairy products have attracted more and more attention from consumers. New dairy products with various tastes and positionings have flooded into the market. The consumer market has been further refined, such as milk powder for different age groups, targeting different regions, different genders, There are endless milk products with different lifestyles and different body needs. Brand competition based on quality and service is becoming increasingly fierce. While promoting products, it is spreading a brand culture and reputation guarantee. In the domestic market, dairy products have formed brands such as Mengniu, Yili, and Guangming, and their internationalization continues to increase.
With the continuous improvement of health needs and the enhancement of health awareness, people's functional requirements for dairy products are becoming more and more diversified. Consumers can no longer satisfy the experience brought by traditional dairy products. Functional milk products have been launched on the market. Products have become the new darling of the market, and functional foods have also begun to appear in other food industry fields besides dairy products. It can be said that functionality is the inevitable development of the food industry now or in the future, because it conforms to consumers' demands for healthy lifestyles. The pursuit of functional dairy products, with the help of the rapid development of dairy products, has shown a strong market appeal.
2. Functionality of dairy products
Dairy products can generally be divided into three categories: one is basic products, such as milk, fermented milk, cheese, ice cream, etc.; the other is products that have changed ingredients and have added value, such as low-lactose or lactose-free products, fortified calcium and vitamins. Dairy products, etc.; the third is functional dairy products that have been proven to be beneficial to health, which contain functional ingredients, common functional factors, probiotics, and prebiotic carbohydrates.
2.1 Main development approaches of functional dairy products
The development of functional dairy products is the focus of the functionalization of dairy products nowadays. With China’s abundant resource advantages, dairy companies should increase the rational and effective development of the functionality of dairy products, and develop fresher, healthier, functional and functional dairy products. High-quality dairy products. In the new competitive system, the research and development of functional dairy products has become the trend of enterprise product development. The functional development of functional dairy products mainly includes the following ways:
2.1.1 Change the inherent composition
Lactose intolerance has a high proportion in Asian populations. The incidence can reach 40% in children and 55% in adults. This directly affects the digestion, absorption and utilization of dairy products. Enzymes are used to decompose lactose in milk. Glucose and galactose can be used to solve the problem of lactose intolerance. In addition, selective vaccination to dairy cows stimulates the immune response of dairy cows, secretes specific antibodies, and produces functional immune milk, which can improve the intestinal tract and prevent dental caries. It is also possible to use transgenic animals and dairy cow mammary gland bioreactors to express foreign genes in the cow's mammary glands so that the cows can produce milk containing functional ingredients. In addition, the milk composition can be changed by controlling the feed and feeding methods of cows, such as increasing the content of conjugated linoleic acid, reducing cholesterol, and promoting bone development.
2.1.2 Add functional ingredients
The functional ingredients often added on the market are probiotics, and the added fermented dairy products have functions such as regulating the intestinal flora and body immunity. In addition, calcium, iron, zinc, selenium and other minerals or vitamins can be added to make dairy products rich in corresponding functional factors; functional oligosaccharides (isomalto-oligosaccharides, fructooligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides, etc.) can be added ), dietary fiber (polydextrose, etc.), made into products with the functions of promoting the proliferation of beneficial intestinal bacteria, anti-caries, regulating blood sugar, and weight control; adding amino acids, peptides, proteins, etc., can promote human growth and intellectual development; add Phospholipids and sterols can improve brain function and prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Among them, oligosaccharides as a new type of sweetener can also be added to dairy products instead of sucrose for edible diabetic patients. The most successful example currently on the market is the addition of functional ingredients such as fructooligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides to infant milk powder. Through the addition and mixing ratio, the nutrients are infinitely close to breast milk in terms of quantity and function. It is a dairy product The product with the largest market share and the best benefit. 2.2 Main functions of functional dairy products.
Functional dairy products are developed through the above channels, and the functions declared in the market mainly include the following aspects:
2.2.1 Low sugar
Sugar-free means that it does not contain monosaccharides (glucose, fructose) and disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), but contains sugar substitutes that are difficult to digest in the body and inhibit fat accumulation in the body, such as xylitol, sorbitol, and maltitol , Lactitol, etc. Due to the continuous improvement of consumers’ health awareness, the dietary structure has gradually improved. There are many types of low-sugar functional dairy products on the market, such as Mengniu Xinyangdao. The added functional oligosaccharides can replace sucrose and also have probiotics. The role of yuan.
2.2.2 High fiber
Dietary fiber is an indispensable component for maintaining human health. It can prevent cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and other diseases, and it can also slow down the speed of digestion, and control the blood sugar and cholesterol at the optimal level. In recent years, high-fiber dairy products have become more and more popular among consumers. The dairy products on the market include Nestlé high-fiber and high-calcium milk powder, and Guangming high-calcium and high-fiber milk powder. Dietary fiber can partially replace sugar and fat, effectively improve the texture and taste of the product, and can also improve intestinal health, facilitate weight control, and does not cause an increase in insulin.
2.2.3 Regulate the intestine
The intestine is known as the life channel of the human body. According to data, the intestine is also the body's largest immune organ, and the intestine is responsible for more missions to maintain human health. Adding functional ingredients, such as oligosaccharides and dietary fiber, to dairy products can effectively regulate the intestinal microecological environment. Oligosaccharides are a kind of prebiotics, which can multiply beneficial bacteria, inhibit harmful bacteria, and maintain the balance of intestinal flora.
2.2.4 Special functions.
Adding some special functional ingredients to dairy products, such as Chinese herbal medicines, mineral elements for special populations, etc., have exclusive functional characteristics for people who lose weight or have a special physique. This is also one of the important directions for the continuous extension and functional development of dairy products in the future.
- Fructo Oligosaccharide
- Malt Oligosaccharide