Now or in the future, the characteristics of functional foods are the diversity of finished products and the diversity of ingredients. Some of these ingredients are classified as nutrients, affecting changes in body function related to health or reducing disease risk. Therefore, the definition of functional food has not been fully and universally accepted.
Internationally, functional food cannot be a single entity with clear characteristics Large-scale research on functional foods in Europe began with the "Nice" conference in 1996. Many well-known food companies and international academic authoritative experts have held several seminars on "functional foods" in the European branch of the International Life Sciences Society (ILSI) and ILSI successively. They have reached a basic concept accepted by the public: "If a food In addition to having suitable nutrition, it can be beneficial to one or more functions of the human body, and it can be called functional food if it has enough nutrition to improve health or reduce disease."
In my country, all foods have certain functions
The research of functional foods in my country started relatively late and is called "health functional foods". With reference to the definition of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) in 1995, the health (functional) food is defined in the 1996 Ministry of Health document No. 46 "Health Food Management Measures" as: "Health food (Healthfood) means "to regulate physiological activities" , Foods whose main purpose is to promote health. Foods with specific health functions are foods that are suitable for specific people to eat, have the function of regulating the body, and are not intended to treat diseases. "
The consumption level of functional foods is gradually increasing
Functional food is an industrialized food that emphasizes that its ingredients can fully display the body's defense function, regulate circadian rhythm, prevent disease, and promote recovery.
Functional foods are in the shape of foods, not capsules or powders; natural ingredients, but can be non-natural concentrates or substances that are not normally eaten as food; as part of the daily diet such as beef dietary fiber and chicken dietary fiber, it is safe to take without professional guidance; with promotion, the role of health, rather than simply supplementing the role of nutrients, this role usually appears on the label or promotion.
Comprehensive indefinite statement of functional food
Since the development of functional foods, companies in various countries have been keen to study the role of functional foods in regulating human functions. In addition to the nutrition and sensory enjoyment of ordinary foods, it also has the third major function of regulating physiological activities. At present, the main functional foods on the domestic market are produced and sold in response to their effects. Common ones include supplementation of trace elements, blood, and calcium.
Functional sweeteners are divided into functional monosaccharides: including crystalline fructose, high-fructose syrup, and L-sugar, etc.; functional oligosaccharides: including isomaltulose, isomaltulose, galacto-oligosaccharide, and fructooligosaccharide , Lactulose, raffinose, soybean oligosaccharides, lactulose oligosaccharides, xylo-oligosaccharides, etc.
Functional monosaccharides: high sweetness, low energy value at iso-sweetness, and can be used in low-energy foods; metabolic pathways have nothing to do with insulin and can be used for diabetics; it is not easy to be used by oral microbes and has less adverse effects on teeth Sucrose is small and hard to cause dental caries.
Functional oligosaccharides: low-calorie, difficult to digest; have the effect of water soluble dietary fiber; dental caries is mainly caused by Streptococcus mutans; the beneficial bacteria in the intestines, bifidobacteria proliferation and other direct functions; indirect effects have inhibition of pathogenic bacteria; inhibition of toxic substances Metabolism and production of harmful enzymes; prevent diarrhea; prevent constipation; lower serum cholesterol; protect liver function; lower blood pressure; improve immunity and anti-tumor; promote nutrient absorption and produce nutrients; improve blood sugar level.
Functional substances that regulate blood sugar
Sugar alcohols are substances in which the aldehyde or ketone groups of sugars have been reduced. Important ones are xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol, lactitol, isomalt, etc.
Maltitol (hydrogenated maltitol):
Regulate blood sugar: do not raise blood sugar after eating, and do not stimulate insulin secretion. Therefore, it will not cause side effects to diabetic patients and will not be decomposed by pancreatic juice; fat reduction effect: when eating with fat, it can inhibit excessive storage of body fat. When insulin is present, LPL activity increases accordingly, which stimulates the secretion of insulin, which is the main factor causing excessive accumulation of fat in animals; anti-caries effect: after in vitro culture, maltitol cannot be used by caries streptococcus mutans. So it will not produce acid.
Maltitol is limitedly used in ice cream, popsicles, beverages, biscuits, bread, candies, pickles, gum-based candies, soy products, sugar and brewing technology, fish and its products, and pastries.
Because people with diabetes need to control their diet (especially foods containing starch and sugars), they often feel insufficient energy supply, which leads to physical weakness and various complications. Consuming xylitol such as xylitol powdered erythritol can overcome these shortcomings. Xylitol has the same calorific value and sweetness as sucrose, but its metabolic pathway in the human body is different from general sugars. It does not require the promotion of insulin. It can penetrate cell membranes and become a nutrient component of tissues, and can make liver Glycogen increased. Therefore, for diabetics, consumption of xylitol will not increase blood sugar level, and can eliminate hunger, restore energy and increase physical strength. To
Using corncob, bagasse, straw, etc. as raw materials, using enzyme technology such as cellulolytic enzymes and biotechnology to produce xylitol, it can solve the problems of high equipment and operating costs in chemical production methods, and difficult product purification; it can be used safely In food;
ADI (Admissible Daily Intake) has no special regulations.
Regulate blood sugar: After testing, 35g of sorbitol was added to the breakfast. The blood glucose value after meal: 9.3mg/dl for normal people and 32.2mg/dl for type II diabetic patients, while the control value of eating sucrose was 44.0mg/dl for normal people. Type 2 diabetes is 78.0mg/dl. Therefore, the fluctuation of blood glucose level after meal is alleviated; anti-caries: After eating sorbitol, it will neither cause the proliferation of caries-proteobacteria nor lower the oral pH (plaque can form when the pH is lower than 5.5).
Functional substances for weight loss
Fat metabolism regulating peptides, konjac powder and glucomannan, oolong tea extract, L-carnitine, buckwheat, sweet potato and other substances mainly have a weight loss effect. There is a direct correlation between the degree of obesity and weight loss. High, the more weight loss after eating glucomannan. Weight loss is due to the suppression of fat absorption after ingesting glucomannan.
Functional substances that assist in lowering blood lipids
Oat-β-glucan is a unique water soluble dietary fiber in oat bran, which can significantly reduce serum cholesterol.
The β-glucan is one of the important components of the oat endosperm cell wall, and is a long-chain non-starch viscous polysaccharide.
Oat-β-glucan can prevent liver fat and heart fat deposition, inhibit the formation of aortic plaques, remove deposited serum cholesterol, reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; it can prevent coronary heart disease, Prolong blood clotting time, reduce blood reduction viscosity and platelet aggregation rate, prevent thrombosis, expand blood vessels, and promote the synthesis of human prostaglandins. In addition, it can nourish brain cells and regulate autonomic nerves.
In addition, there are wheat germ oil, rice bran oil, perilla oil, sea buckthorn (seed) oil, grape seed oil, deep sea fish oil, corn (germ) oil, oat wheat bran and oat-β-glucan, soy protein, hawthorn, Gypenosides and other substances.
Functional substances that help inhibit tumors
Agar-oligosaccharides are agar (also known as "Yanglai") that is made up of seaweeds such as the red algae Gelidium, Gracilaria, etc., which are generally used for eating or preparing culture media after being treated with alkali and acid.
Agar-oligosaccharides have agar-oligosaccharides mainly containing agarobiose after implanting human colon cancer cells under the skin of rats to form negative tumor bodies. It can be seen that the volume and weight of the tumor are reduced, and 20% of the tumors disappear; anti-oxidation effect: when the body is too much NO, it can rupture the surrounding cells and cause chronic renal dysfunction, ulcerative colitis, and chronic joint disease , And can cause cytogenetic factor barriers.
In addition, functional substances that assist in inhibiting tumors include garlic, shark cartilage powder, agar oligosaccharides, lycopene, rubescens (also called cardamine), astaxanthin, selenium and selenium-containing products, cruciferous vegetables Wait.
Functional substances that assist in lowering blood pressure
Hypertension is a common and frequently-occurring disease with a low cure rate and a high disability rate, which brings a certain amount of tension and fear to people's lives and work. However, if we maintain good eating and living habits, hypertension can still be prevented.
Soybean oligopeptides, eucommia leaf extract, rutin (extract) [rutin (extract)] these substances have the function of lowering blood pressure or assisting in lowering blood pressure.
Functional substances that regulate the intestinal flora
Beneficial living bacteria preparations: Befeide, Huichunsheng, Bifido King, Jin Shuangqi, Lizhu Changle with Bifidobacteria as effective bacteria; Onli 1 with Lactobacillus or Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium as effective bacteria No., Sanzhan, Pei Feikang, etc.; there are also live bacteria preparations based on aerobic bacteria. Beneficial living bacteria preparations take advantage of its oxygen consumption characteristics to form an anaerobic environment in the intestinal tract, thereby facilitating the growth of anaerobic bacteria and facultative anaerobic bacteria that account for the majority of the intestinal flora, while maintaining the normal intestinal flora constitute.
Promoters for proliferation of beneficial bacteria: through these substances, the body’s own physiologically inherent bacteria proliferate to form an intestinal ecological environment dominated by beneficial bacteria; it is basically indigestible and not absorbed in the upper digestive tract; it can promote the proliferation of beneficial bacteria ; It can effectively improve the composition of intestinal flora; it can improve the function of the host's intestinal tract.
A comprehensive preparation of beneficial bacteria and their proliferation factors: it has obvious and reliable effects in improving the composition of intestinal flora, lowering intestinal pH and relieving constipation. Although there are not many or even very few beneficial bacteria among them, they are still effective in improving this type of intestinal function.
Substances with the function of relieving physical fatigue
Jujube, velvet antler, silky chicken, kudzu root, fish swim bladder glue, taurine, octacosanol, American ginseng, ginseng and other substances can enhance endurance, energy and physical strength; improve reaction sensitivity and shorten reaction time; improve muscle endurance; increase Ascend power; increase energy metabolism rate and reduce muscle spasm; improve muscle function including myocardium; reduce systolic blood pressure; increase basal metabolic rate; stimulate sex hormones; promote fat metabolism.
Functional substances that help improve memory
Apigenin, capsaicin, ginkgo, ginseng, choline, melatonin, deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid, monounsaturated fatty acids, folic acid, etc., these substances have anti-cerebral blood, improve blood flow, and platelet aggregation functions Influence, influence on calcium channels and intracellular calcium content, improve energy metabolism and protect against mitochondrial damage, and improve memory impairment caused by brain trauma and cerebral ischemia.
Functional substances that relieve visual fatigue
Anthocyanins (class) (Bilberry extract), lutein, foods rich in vitamin A, foods rich in vitamin C, foods rich in vitamin C, calcium, chromium, zinc, pearls, kelp and other substances protection Capillaries promote the regeneration of red blood cells and enhance the ability to adapt to the dark. According to the French Air Force clinical trial, it can improve night vision, reduce visual fatigue, and improve the ability to adapt to low brightness.
Functional substances to improve nutritional anemia
Ferrous lactate, heme iron (porphyrin iron), ferrous sulfate, ferrous glucose and other substances improve nutritional anemia and serve as iron sources. In various iron-containing nutritional supplements, improve iron deficiency anemia.
Beauty functional substances
Aloe, pearl pink flower, ceramide (N-acyl sphingosine; sugar ceramide), ferulic acid, apple polyphenols (raw apple extract) and other substances promote blood circulation, accelerate blood circulation, promote metabolism, and increase Eliminate the melanin produced by melanocytes, promote the decomposition of melanin retained in the body, so that it cannot be precipitated to form stains, or the precipitated pigment can be decomposed and discharged from the body.
In addition, functional substances also have the function of regulating intestinal flora, improving growth and development, improving nutritional anemia, alleviating physical fatigue, delaying aging, enhancing immunity, and alleviating vision Fatigue function etc.
Multiple auxiliary protection of functional food nutrition and health
It can be seen from the above examples that foods made with functional substances can enhance immunity, delay aging, assist in lowering blood sugar, anti-oxidation, assist in improving memory, relieve visual fatigue, promote lead excretion, clear pharynx, assist in lowering blood pressure, and improve Sleep, promote lactation, relieve physical fatigue, improve hypoxia tolerance, assist in protection against radiation hazards, lose weight, improve growth and development, increase bone density, improve nutritional anemia, assist in protection against chemical liver damage, remove acne, Eliminates chloasma, improves skin moisture, improves skin oil, regulates intestinal flora, promotes digestion, laxative, and assists in protecting gastric mucosa.
Functional food: the mainstream of the food industry in the future
In the world, functional foods and beverages are extremely popular. For example, as mentioned earlier, dietary fiber in chicken and french fries both enhance your body strength, beef dietary fiber as well. From that we can see the reasons for the popularity of functional foods and beverages include the following aspects: First, the rapid development of science and technology has made clear or basic understanding of many food ingredients that are beneficial to human health. The relationship between the occurrence of various diseases and diet makes it possible to improve human health by improving dietary conditions and exerting the physiological regulation function of food itself. Secondly, the formation of an aging society, the increase in the incidence of various senile diseases, and the increase in childhood and adult diseases have particularly caused people to panic. Third, the popularization of nutrition knowledge and the vigorous promotion of the news media have made people pay more attention to the improvement of health and spend more money on relatively expensive functional foods, thus forming a relatively stable special nutrition consumer group.
- Fructo Oligosaccharide
- Malt Oligosaccharide