Dietary fiber refers to the sum of edible plant components, carbohydrates, and similar substances that can resist the digestion and absorption of the human small intestine and can be partially or fully fermented in the human large intestine, including polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, lignin, and related Plant matter. In daily life, people tend to confuse dietary fiber, crude fiber, and cellulose. Crude fiber is only a part of dietary fiber. It refers to the residue left by plant tissues with a certain concentration of acid, alkali, alcohol, and ether after a certain time of treatment under certain temperature conditions. Its main component is cellulose. And lignin. Cellulose is only a part of crude fiber. It is a single compound, which is a linear compound of glucose connected by β-1,4 glycosidic bonds. It can be seen that the amount of dietary fiber is more than that of crude fiber and cellulose. Crude fiber is the most common component of dietary fiber, and cellulose is the main component of dietary fiber.
What are the links between the physiological functions of dietary fiber and human health?
Enhance intestinal function and prevent constipation
The effects of dietary fiber on the function of the large intestine include: shortening the passage time of feces, increasing the volume of feces and the frequency of defecation, diluting the contents of the large intestine and providing a fermentable substrate for the flora normally present in the large intestine. Water-soluble dietary fiber is like a water-absorbing sponge in the large intestine, which can increase the water content of feces and make it soft. At the same time, dietary fiber can also promote intestinal peristalsis, thereby accelerating bowel movements and producing natural laxative effects. The shortening of defecation time is beneficial to reduce the growth of harmful bacteria in the intestines, and can prevent large amounts of bile acids from turning into carcinogens.
Control weight and help lose weight
Dietary fiber, especially soluble fiber, can slow down the speed of food from the stomach to the intestines and has a water absorption effect. After water absorption, the volume increases, resulting in a feeling of fullness and reducing energy intake, achieving weight control and weight loss.
Reduce blood cholesterol levels and prevent cardiovascular diseases
High fat and high cholesterol are the main causes of cardiovascular disease. Cholesterol in the liver is metabolized by the human body and converted into bile acid. The bile acid reaches the small intestine to digest fat, and then the bile acid is absorbed by the small intestine back to the liver and converted into cholesterol. Dietary fiber can form a gelatinous substance in the small intestine to surround bile acid. The bile acid surrounded by dietary fiber cannot be absorbed back to the liver through the small intestine wall, but is excreted through the digestive tract. Therefore, in order to digest the food that continuously enters the small intestine, the liver can only absorb the cholesterol in the blood to supplement the consumed bile acid, thereby reducing the cholesterol in the blood, which is conducive to reducing coronary heart disease and stroke caused by high cholesterol. The incidence of disease.
Blood glucose production response, prevention of diabetes
Many studies have proved that certain water-soluble fibers can reduce postprandial blood glucose and blood insulin elevation response. This is because the fruit acid in dietary fiber can prolong the residence time of food in the gastrointestinal tract, prolong gastric emptying time, slow down the body's absorption of glucose, and prevent the body's blood sugar level from rising sharply after a meal. And reduce the body's demand for insulin, which is conducive to the improvement of diabetes.
Cancer epidemiological studies have shown that dietary fiber or fiber-rich food intake is negatively correlated with risk factors for colon cancer, vegetable intake is negatively correlated with colorectal cancer risk factors, and cereals are positively correlated. The occurrence of the two types of cancer is mainly related to the long stay of carcinogens in the intestine and long-term contact with the intestinal wall. Increasing the fiber content in the diet reduces the concentration of carcinogens. In addition, dietary fiber has the effect of stimulating bowel movements, and the contact time of carcinogens with the intestinal wall is greatly shortened. However, further research is needed to draw a positive conclusion.
- Fructo Oligosaccharide
- Malt Oligosaccharide