Functional sugars include functional oligosaccharides, functional dietary fibers, and functional sugar alcohols. They are all important food ingredients for brain development. Among them, functional oligosaccharides refer to functional sugars that have a certain improvement effect on human health. Most of them consist of 2-10 monosaccharides connected by glycosidic bonds to form linear or branched low-degree polymerized sugars. Not all oligosaccharides become functional sugars. Only when they are not digested and absorbed in the human gastrointestinal tract and directly enter the large intestine, oligosaccharides used by bifidobacteria are called the functional sugar, because they are not hydrolyzed in the human intestine (except Isomaltulose), so they are not digested and absorbed but directly enter the large intestine. This feature allows them to be used preferentially by bifidobacteria, which are the proliferation factors of beneficial intestinal bacteria, also known as prebiotics. These functional sugars mainly include xylo-oligosaccharides (xylo-oligosaccharides), fructo-oligosaccharides (fructose oligosaccharides), stachyose, galacto-oligosaccharides, isomalto-oligosaccharides, soybean oligosaccharides, etc. Functional sugars are mostly sugars made from corncob, bagasse, wheat straw, and other hemicellulose-rich substances through the acid method, acid enzyme method, or enzymatic methods, such as xylo-oligosaccharides; or some starch oligosaccharides through acid Method, acid-enzyme method, or enzymatic method of preparing sugar, such as isomalt oligosaccharide. Functional sugar is a new vocabulary in recent years. It was first introduced to China from Japan, and the country vigorously supports and promotes functional sugar.
Improve the function of intestinal flora
Lactobacillus bifidus (Lactobacillus bifidus) was first isolated from the feces of healthy breastfed infants by Dr. Tissier of the Pasteur Institute in France in 1899. Researchers mainly in Japan and other European countries have gradually discovered the beneficial effects of bifidobacteria on the human body through more than 30 years of research, and have become a symbol of measuring the health of the body and evaluating functional foods that improve the gastrointestinal flora. one. Functional sugars can proliferate bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and inhibit or not proliferate Clostridium perfringens. It is Escherichia coli or Enterococcus, and Bacteroides do not proliferate or the proliferation amplitude is lower than that of bifidobacteria or lactobacilli. It can be considered that it has a certain function of regulating the gastrointestinal flora. After ingesting functional sugar, the number of bifidobacteria in the intestine can increase hundreds of times. Bifidobacterium can not only inhibit the reproduction of pathogens, but also reduce or even completely eliminate spoilage bacteria such as Clostridium. Spoilage bacteria will produce ammonia, amine, hydrogen sulfide, indole, phenol, and other harmful substances when dividing amino acids, which is one of the many reasons that cause harm to human health. Functional sugars can effectively promote the reproduction of bifidobacteria. Not only do bifidobacteria produce no harmful substances, but also organic acids such as acetic acid and lactic acid produced after their metabolism can lower intestinal pH, increase endogenous lysozyme activity and inhibit. The role of pathogenic or spoilage bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Clostridium. In addition, Bifidobacterium can also produce vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, folic acid, and other vitamin substances, which play a role in maintaining human health.
Functional sugar for laxative
Commonly used substances with laxative effects are dietary fiber, sugar alcohol, and probiotics. Dietary fiber cannot be absorbed by the human body but can be partially decomposed and fermented by the intestinal flora to produce organic acids, lower the pH of the intestine, and stimulate the peristalsis of the intestinal mucosa. Food residues formed by undigested dietary fiber can change stool properties, stimulate colon movement, and promote defecation. In addition, water-soluble dietary fiber such as soluble fiber for cholesterol can be used by bacteria and can retain moisture in feces. Functional sugar cannot be digested and absorbed in the human body. It is a low molecular weight water-soluble dietary fiber, so it can be used to thin the stool and relieve constipation. Its physiological function is entirely attributed to its unique fermentation characteristics (proliferation characteristics of bifidobacteria). The feature of functional sugar over dietary fiber is that its daily demand is small, and it will not cause diarrhea within the recommended amount. It has a certain degree of sweetness, good sweetness characteristics, is easily soluble in water, does not increase the viscosity of the product, has stable physical properties, and is easy to add to processed foods and beverages.
Functional sugar enhances immunity
The results of a large number of animal experiments show that bifidobacteria multiply in the intestines and can play an anti-cancer effect. This anti-cancer effect is attributed to the cells, cell wall components, and extracellular secretions of bifidobacteria that enhance the body's immunity. For example, sterile mice that are fed with a single factor of colonizing bifidobacteria have a longer life span than untreated sterile mice. Functional sugar has the function of regulating bowel movements. It can inhibit intestinal spoilage bacteria, and the spoilage products are significantly reduced and discharged in time, thus reducing the occurrence of colorectal cancer.
Functional sugar promotes mineral absorption
Studies have shown that functional sugars have the ability to retain mineral elements such as Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn. Functional sugars cannot be decomposed by digestive enzymes. After reaching the large intestine, the functional sugars are fermented by bifidobacteria to release mineral ions. As we all know, the latter half of the digestive tract, such as the cecum and colon, are important places where mineral elements are absorbed. In addition, the short-chain fatty acids produced by functional sugars fermented by bifidobacteria lower the pH of the intestinal tract. In an acidic environment, the dissolution rate of many minerals increases, which facilitates absorption. Since short-chain fatty acids can stimulate the growth of colonic membrane cells, it improves the absorption capacity of minerals.
Functional sugar bone health
After the functional oligosaccharides and sugar dietary fiber are fermented by beneficial bacteria in the intestine, a large number of organic acids are produced, which improves the solubility of mineral elements in the intestine and makes it easier to be absorbed by the intestine. Feeding mice with 10% oligofructose feed, experiments show that oligofructose can promote the absorption of calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc, and can prevent bone loss caused by lack of estrogen. Therefore, functional sugar products combined with mineral nutritional supplements will greatly increase the absorption rate of calcium, iron, magnesium, and other minerals.
Functional sugar anti-caries
Functional sugars generally have no adverse effects on teeth. Dental caries is mainly due to the effects of oral microorganisms, especially Streptococcus mutans, using sucrose produced by acid, especially lactic acid, and water-insoluble β-glucan. Functional sugars cannot be the substrates of the aforementioned oral microorganisms, and they have no coagulation effect of bacteria, so they will not cause dental caries.
Functional sugar-lowering blood lipids
A large number of human trials have confirmed that the intake of functional sugars can reduce serum cholesterol levels. In fact, soluble fiber for cholesterol is widely used in the market. The soluble fiber daily intake of a certain amount of functional sugars for 2 weeks to 3 months, total serum cholesterol lowered by 20-50mg/dl. Lactic acid bacteria including bifidobacteria and their fermented dairy product bacteria can reduce total serum cholesterol levels and increase the ratio of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to total cholesterol in women's serum. The decrease in serum cholesterol levels is thought to be the result of changes in the balance of intestinal microflora. In vitro experiments have also shown that 12 strains of inherent Lactobacillus acidophilus in the human intestine can absorb cholesterol, and Lactobacillus acidophilus can inhibit the absorption of cholesterol in the wall of the small intestine. The ability of bifidobacteria to metabolize to produce niacin is also related to the reduction of serum cholesterol levels. Bifidobacterium controls the newly formed low-density lipoprotein receptors by inhibiting the activated T cells in the human body and plays a role in reducing serum cholesterol levels. Test results on mice show that Bifidobacterium controls the synthesis of cholesterol by affecting the activity of β-hydroxy-β-methylglutarate-coenzyme A reductase, thereby reducing serum cholesterol content.
The unique properties of functional sugar
1. Highly selective propagation of bifidobacteria
2. Good heat and acid stability
3. It is difficult to be broken down by human digestive enzymes
4. Low sweetness and low calories
Functional candy quickly opened up the market. On September 29, 2005, Yucheng was awarded the title of "Chinese Functional Sugar City" by the China Light Industry Council, becoming the only "functional sugar city" in the country. With the expansion of the consumption field, my country's functional sugar industry has achieved significant development, moving towards multi-variety, individualization, specialization, functionality, and large-scale development, with a substantial increase in output and an increasingly perfect variety structure. Mankind will usher in a new era of functional sugar.
Functional candy is a new category developed on the basis of traditional candy. In the reporter's interview, industry insiders also gave some different answers to the definition of functional candy. For example, Chen Weihui, a marketing expert of the Xiamen Falcon team, believes that functional candies should be "candies with additional external characteristics greater than the characteristics of the candies". In other words, the focus of candy appeal is not on itself, but on properties other than sugar. And James Dedman of Danisco Group, the world's leading food ingredient manufacturer, said in an interview with our reporter that the international definition of functional candy is: "In addition to meeting people's most basic calorie requirements, it also brings moisturizing and vitamin supplements. Candies with additional functions such as low-sugar or sugar-free healthy candies are also functional candies". This definition makes functional candies cover a broader range.
However, in any case, functional candy can be regarded as a sudden rise in the domestic candy industry in recent years, and it has quickly opened the door to the market. According to an analysis by the National Bureau of Statistics in 2004, the market share of functional candies will surpass that of traditional candies within 5 years.
Vitamins and xylitol stimulate the functional candy market
In just 4 years, vitamin candy has developed into the fifth largest category in my country's candy industry.
In addition to vitamins, xylitol is also an indispensable keyword for functional sugars. With the strengthening of people's health awareness, urban residents have begun to consciously control sugar intake and maintain a healthy body. Women in particular regard sugar as a scourge in order to maintain their bodies. This part of consumers is the target group of the candy market. Xylitol products came into being.
The concept of sugar-free has spread to the entire confectionery industry. In addition to gum, hard candies, soft candies, and even chocolate have begun to cater to this "sugar-free" trend.
The gradual rise of functional candies has brought a certain impact on the traditional confectionery industry. In the 1990s, the sales of cylindrical toffee, which had a monopoly on the market, were shrinking year by year. The hard toffee market also stagnates, to a large extent, relying on the wedding and festival market.
- Fructo Oligosaccharide
- Malt Oligosaccharide