1. Market background of functional candy
The development of the confectionery industry has been more than a century. It has experienced two stages of process innovation and technological innovation. The colorful and superb quality of candy has been favored by consumers of different ages and has become an indispensable part of people's lives. The development trend of the confectionery industry in the future has entered a new stage of functional innovation, moving in the direction of deliciousness, nutrition, and health, especially for those with obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, people with weak immune function, and those with micro-ecological disorders. The role of health care and auxiliary treatment. Tasty is always the first function of candy, but excessive intake of sucrose and fat constitutes deliciousness. People think that this is an unhealthy factor. Therefore, functional candy has become a general trend in the development of candy, allowing people to eat candy while also helping the body. Health supplements with more beneficial ingredients.
At present, health-conscious candy is a very broad concept, and the main appeal is the concept of "sugar-free, enhanced, and functional". Sugar-free candy, that is, does not contain sucrose, usually uses sweeteners instead of sugar, and its main health benefit is low calories. According to Euromonitor statistics, 94% of pressed mints are sugar-free in Japan and only 2% in China; 35% of sugar-free pouring candies in Germany, while only 1.4% in China; sugar-free chewing gums in the UK and Germany account for market share China accounts for 80% of the total and China’s 28%. This shows the development potential. Fortified candy, that is, for the nutritional elements with low content of the original product itself, by adjusting the composition and content ratio, these elements are strengthened to meet the nutritional needs of the human body. Common fortifying elements are vitamins, calcium, minerals, fiber, etc. Functional candy is a product that adds special functional food ingredients to provide specific health benefits. It is generally believed that only those with active elements can be called functional candies. "Healthy" confectionery products have greatly promoted the development of the market.
The main types of functional candies on the domestic market include vitamin candies, prebiotic candies, sugar-free candies, mints with a refreshing effect, and throat lozenges containing Chinese herbal medicines. The launch of functional candy is an extension of traditional candy brands to high-end product categories, reflecting consumers' high-level and multi-level needs for candy products, and is also a product of the differentiated operation of various candy brands. But so far, the functional candies in my country's confectionery market are still relatively single compared with foreign brands. Functional candies with health-care effects will continue to grow and will become one of the main trends in the development of the confectionery market.
2. Application of prebiotic isomalt oligosaccharide in candy
Isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO) is made from starch as a raw material through the action of special enzymes. It is composed of at least one of 2-10 glucose molecules combined with α-1,6-glycosidic bonds. The branch-like oligosaccharides include isomaltose, isomaltotriose, panose, and branched-chain oligosaccharides of isomaltotetraose and above. Because of its many good physiological functions, its application in the production of candies can not only combine with the good taste of candies, but also further enhance the nutritional value of candies.
1. Physiological function of prebiotic isomalt oligosaccharide
Gibson defines prebiotics as "indigestible food components that can selectively stimulate the growth or activity of one or a few bacteria in the colon to have a beneficial effect on the host, thereby increasing the health of the host." The substances with beneficial biological functions are mainly non-digestible oligosaccharides, such as isomalto-oligosaccharides, fructooligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides, xylo-oligosaccharides, etc., in addition to some natural plant extracts, The current research on protein hydrolysates, polyols, etc. mainly focus on oligosaccharides.
Many studies have shown that isomalt oligosaccharide is a kind of prebiotic with good physiological functions. Because it contains α-1,6 glycosidic bonds, it can neither be hydrolyzed nor digested and absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, and reach directly The large intestine is used by the beneficial bacteria there; its physiological function is mainly achieved by promoting the reproduction of the beneficial bacteria in the human intestine and optimizing the balance of the flora; it also has the function of dietary fiber, which can increase the water holding capacity and capacity of the stool, thereby It is easy to be discharged; it can absorb anions and bile acids in the intestinal tract to effectively reduce blood lipids and cholesterol; it can induce local or systemic immune response in the intestinal tract that is beneficial to the health of the host, and has the effect of enhancing immunity.
In addition, it can also be fermented to produce short-chain fatty acids to lower the pH of the intestinal tract, thereby inhibiting intestinal pathogenic microorganisms, proliferating bifidobacteria, and improving the availability of minerals. In candy formulations, when the ratio of isomalt oligosaccharide to sucrose is greater than 1, isomalt oligosaccharide can prevent sucrose from turning into insoluble glucan to form tartar and cause tooth decay, playing an anti-caries effect.
2. The physical and chemical properties of isomalt oligosaccharides used in candy
The adaptability of oligomeric isomalt syrup (powder) in candy production is determined by their series of excellent physical and chemical properties. It has similar physical and chemical properties and sweetness to maltose syrup. The sweetness is 40% to 50% of that of sucrose. The taste is soft and round. It can be fully reconciled with various sugars and sweeteners. It can reduce the sweetness in candy production. And energy; with proper viscosity to meet the needs of candy production. It has excellent heat and acid resistance. It will not decompose if heated for a long time under the conditions of pH3 and 120℃. The heat resistance is more stable than that of white sugar. After advanced separation and refining process, IMO-50 syrup can boil the sugar at a temperature above 150℃; oligomeric isomalt syrup has good moisture retention and anti-crystallization properties, which can prevent it from The crystallization of other sugars that can be used together returns to sand; under acidic conditions, the degree of browning is small, and it is similar to sucrose under neutral (or slightly alkaline: pH less than 8) conditions. The oligomeric isomalt syrup candy test (physical changes caused by heating and concentration) shows that the physical properties such as hardness, transparency, coloring and foaming are very good, and the thermal stability is better than that of white sugar. Isomaltooligosaccharides are difficult-to-fermentable sugars that do not grow moldy when stored, and can stably exert their characteristics and functions in confectionery.
3. Examples of the application of isomalt oligosaccharide in functional candies
1) Use isomalt oligosaccharide to produce prebiotic gelatin toffee
The high-quality gelatin toffee has a rich and aftertaste-resistant natural and pure milky flavor, a pleasant sweet taste, a comfortable and appetizing chew, etc. In the production of gelatin toffee, the amount of starch syrup is the largest. The various physical and chemical properties of isomalto-oligosaccharides are completely superior to starch syrups such as glucose, high maltose and malto-oligosaccharides, which can completely replace these starch syrups in production.
(1) Ingredients formula: 2.5kg sugar, 7.5kg isomalt syrup, 200g edible gelatin, 1kg fat, 1.8kg sweet milk, 600g milk powder, appropriate amount of flavor;
(2) Process flow: ingredients → dissolving sugar → filtering → boiling → whipping → blending → cooling → stripping → evening → cutting → packaging → finished product;
(3) Operating points: Add gelatin to hot water at a temperature of 60°C-80°C 3 times its weight, stir evenly, and keep the temperature at 60~80°C, and let it stand for 2 hours to obtain a glue solution. Add the granulated sugar in the formula to the appropriate amount of water to heat and melt, and then add the isomalt syrup. The temperature of sugar dissolving should be controlled at 105~107℃, and the concentration of the total solids should be 75%~80%. The melted sugar liquid should be filtered immediately, heated and boiled. The temperature of the sugar boiled is 120~126℃ until the solid content in the syrup reaches 88%~92%. Add sweet milk, milk powder and oil to the boiled syrup , Mix well by stirring, and then add gelatin solution for whipping. The whipping time is 20~30min. During the whipping process, 4%~6% of water will volatilize, so that the final water content of toffee is controlled at 5% ~8%. Pour the above-mentioned mixed material liquid into the seasoning barrel, and set the temperature of the seasoning barrel at 80~85℃. Add spices, seasonings, etc. to the above-mentioned mixture and mix well. The adjusted syrup enters the forming machine through a stretcher to form a cylindrical sugar mass; or passes through a flat turning equipment to form a square or rectangular shape.
2) Use isomalt oligosaccharide to produce functional hard candy
When using isomalt oligosaccharide to produce health-care hard candy, it can completely replace maltose syrup. It is basically the same in volume, viscosity and texture. The candy formula and production process are unchanged, and the produced candy is moderate in hardness, crisp and refreshing. Does not stick to teeth. The taste is pure, the aroma is moderate, and it has the unique flavor of hard candy.
(1) Raw material formula: 6kg oligomeric isomalt syrup, 3.9kg white sugar, 50g citric acid, 50g special oil for hard candy, coloring agent (appropriate amount), mint flavor (appropriate amount);
(2) Technological process: ingredients → dissolving sugar → boiling → cooling → blending → cooling → forming → cooling → packaging → finished product;
(3) Operating points: Mix the isomalt oligosaccharide syrup and granulated sugar evenly by dissolving sugar to make the finished product taste consistent. The dissolved materials are boiled under normal pressure to reduce their moisture to below 2%. During the whole process of boiling the sugar liquid to the specified concentration, the sugar liquid should always be kept in a boiling state to ensure that the water is continuously removed from the sugar liquid. The cooking cycle should not exceed 15 minutes. If the time is too long, the final product will become sticky; if the time is too short, the moisture cannot be removed. After cooling the boiled sugar liquid to about 100°C, add flavors and coloring agents to mix evenly. The purpose of cooling the blended sugar solution is to remove the bubbles generated during the blending process and make the finished product beautiful in appearance. Pour the sugar liquid into the forming mold, cool and stand for forming. Select the complete sugar body and package it into a finished product.
3. The application of dietary fiber polydextrose in candy
In view of today's dietary habits and lifestyles, adding dietary fiber and prebiotic ingredients to food has become a trend that is more and more popular with consumers. Dietary fiber can be divided into soluble and insoluble in terms of solubility. Soluble dietary fiber is suitable for use in candies and requires good thermal stability. The bear can withstand the high-temperature cooking of candies without being decomposed. The quality will not adversely affect. Polydextrose's many advantages, such as high solubility, good stability and good taste, have become the preferred source of dietary fiber in candy production, which will bring new impetus to the development of the candy industry.
1. The physiological function of polydextrose
Dietary fiber refers to the naturally occurring, extracted or synthesized carbohydrate polymer in plants, the degree of polymerization is ≥3, it is not digested and absorbed by the small intestine of the human body, and has a health significance to the human body. Numerous studies have shown that polydextrose is a good source of dietary fiber that integrates many physiological functions. Tests have proved that polydextrose is an indigestible sugar with a calorific value of about 1kcal/g, which is 1/4 of sucrose and 1/9 of fat. It also has the function of improving constipation (increasing stool volume, shortening defecation time, etc.), lowering blood sugar and cholesterol/blood lipids, regulating the balance of intestinal flora and promoting the absorption of calcium and other minerals, removing toxic substances from the body, and reducing the intestinal tract The risk of cancer occurrence improves the body's immunity.
2. The physical and chemical properties of polydextrose in candy
The suitability of polydextrose for the production of candies is determined by its series of good processing characteristics. In terms of process characteristics, polydextrose has medium viscosity, high glass transition temperature, amorphous and non-crystalline, and does not change color after boiling. Ideal raw material for confectionery. Polydextrose has almost no sweetness or slight sweetness. Compared with using glucose syrup or maltose syrup, the sweetness of candies may be slightly reduced. In fact, candies made with sucrose or partial invert sugar will be too sweet to make people feel uncomfortable. It is easy to accept, so if you add polydextrose to the candy in an appropriate amount, it will hardly affect the taste and sweetness of the candy. Polydextrose has good water solubility and dissolution speed. It is easy to prepare high-concentration solutions from powder products. The concentration of the aqueous solution is as high as 80% at 25°C. Polydextrose has very good acid and thermal stability, can withstand high temperature boiling at 160°C during hard candy production without changing color, and has a higher boiling temperature and stability than sucrose. Polydextrose has a medium viscosity. Like sucrose, its aqueous solution is a typical Newtonian liquid. Under the same conditions, its aqueous solution has a slightly higher viscosity than sucrose. Polydextrose has similar hygroscopicity and moisture retention properties to starch syrup, and can be used as an anti-crystallization agent to well control the crystallization of sugar or sugar alcohol. A proper amount of polydextrose can prevent or delay the recurrence of sugar or sugar alcohol, improve the texture of the candy, and extend the storage period of the candy.
3. Application of polydextrose in functional candies
1) Application in candy recipes
The effect of adding polydextrose in the candy formula on the texture of the product is similar to that of using typical 42DE liquid glucose. As the total amount of this water-soluble dietary fiber in the formula gradually increases, its texture becomes longer (or plasticity), and it can effectively reduce the tendency of crystallization. Due to its high viscosity and high glass transition temperature during dissolution, polydextrose has become an ideal ingredient for process improvement to extend the shelf life of candy products. In gum candy production, by using polydextrose and sucrose, there is no need to add high doses of sweeteners. In the production of hard candy, polydextrose is used to replace the glucose in the formula to keep the product low in sugar and energy, without the need to add high doses of sweeteners. In the production of gelatin jelly, polydextrose is used in the formula instead of part of the glucose syrup. All other ingredients are the same as traditional jelly, and there is no need to add high-dose sweeteners. The above formula is aimed at product requirements that reduce energy and increase fiber content.
2) Application in the production of sugar-free high-fiber hard candy
Polydextrose has been used as a dietary fiber in many countries to develop functional confectionery products. Polydextrose and sugar alcohol ingredients can be used together to make a good sugar-free hard candy, and polydextrose also gives the candy dietary fiber and prebiotics health Features. The following is the process formula for producing sugar-free high-fiber hard candy with maltitol and polydextrose:
(1) Raw material formula: crystalline maltitol 64.5%, polydextrose 10%, water 24%, citric acid 0.8%, flavoring 0.5%, aspartame 0.14%, pigment 0.05%;
(2) Technological process: ingredients → dissolving sugar → filtration → preheating → vacuum evaporation → vacuum concentration → cooling → chewing gum, pigment) blending → cooling → forming → cooling → packaging → finished product;
(3) Operating points: add water to the crystalline maltitol and polydextrose in the formula and heat it to melt, filter the melted sugar solution immediately, and preheat it to bring the temperature to 135~145°C, keep stirring, and vacuum to fully maintain the vacuum 5min, then take out the pot when the moisture in the sugar solution drops to 2%. After cooking, the sugar liquid should be lighter in color and have a certain degree of smoothness and transparency. The sugar body should be transparent and bright. In order to ensure the quality of the finished product, the temperature of the sugar solution is lowered to 95~100°C, and then aspartame, citric acid, flavor and pigment solution are added, and finally the normal production process is entered. Most candies are cast or stamped. For the press forming method, the temperature of the sugar body is generally controlled between 85~95℃. If the sugar body temperature is too high, the sugar granules are easy to deform; if the temperature is too low, the surface of the sugar granules will be rough, which will affect the quality of the finished product. For pouring molding, it can be directly injected and cooled to 40-45℃ after molding, and the moisture content of the final hard candy product is less than 2%.
4. Application of Erythritol in Functional Candy
Erythritol is a "zero-calorie" sugar-free food ingredient, which is widely used in the production of low-energy sugar-free candy. Erythritol confectioners sugar can meet the needs of people with diabetes, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and other people who are not suitable for sugar intake, adolescents, and children for caries prevention candy. It is a filling sweetener with a refreshing taste, pure sweetness, good crystallinity, low hygroscopicity, easy to crush, etc. Erythritol confectioners sugar is very stable to heat and acid, and it is very stable under general food processing conditions. , There is almost no browning or decomposition phenomenon, can withstand high-temperature processing during candy production without browning, so it is very suitable for candy production.
1. The physiological functions of erythritol
Among the currently commercialized sugar alcohols, erythritol confectioners style is the only sugar alcohol of natural origin. It is produced by fermentation using glucose as raw material and is widely found in various fermented foods, plants, and Inside animals.
Erythritol confectioners style is a small molecule substance that is easily absorbed by the small intestine through passive diffusion. More than 90% of it enters the blood circulation, and only a small amount directly enters the large intestine as a carbon source for fermentation. Since the human body does not have any enzyme that can decompose erythritol, the erythritol that enters the blood cannot be metabolized and is excreted in the urine, which determines the low energy value of erythritol, and the maximum energy produced is only 0.2kcal/g.
Most sugar alcohol compounds are not easily absorbed by the small intestine. Excessive use can cause side effects such as diarrhea and flatulence. The degree of these two side effects is also related to the individual physical fitness of the ingester. In severe cases, abdominal cramps and intestinal rolling may sometimes occur. Therefore, the average daily intake of these sugar alcohols is usually limited to less than 20g. Since 90% of the erythritol entering the human body will be quickly and completely absorbed by the small intestine, the possible side effects of non-absorbable substances are avoided, so its tolerance is high and the side effects are small. Compared with other sugar alcohol sweeteners, erythritol has the highest tolerable amount. Its tolerable amount is 2~3 times that of xylitol, lactitol, maltitol, and isomalt, and it is sorbitol and mannitol. 3~4 times of that. Clinical studies have shown that when the daily intake of erythritol added to food or beverage reaches 75~80g, mild diarrhea will begin to appear.
Erythritol will not cause dental caries, and it also has the ability to inhibit the fermentation of certain carbohydrates by oral microorganisms. Tooth decay occurs because the bacteria in the plaque ferment sugar to produce acid. When the pH of the plaque surface drops below 5.7, it will corrode the teeth and form dental caries. Oral microorganisms, especially Streptococcus mutans, cannot rely on erythritol for growth and reproduction, and will not produce organic acids to lower the pH of the plaque surface.
The absorption of erythritol does not affect plasma glucose and insulin levels, which makes erythritol a sweetener suitable for diabetics. After 3 hours of healthy people ingesting erythritol at a dose of 1 g/kg, their blood glucose levels and blood insulin levels did not change significantly. Therefore, it is safe for diabetics.
2. The physical and chemical properties of erythritol used in candy
1) Physical and chemical properties
Erythritol has moderate solubility (37%, 25°C), its aqueous solution is colorless and transparent, and its viscosity is very low. Erythritol crystals have extremely low hygroscopicity and do not absorb moisture in an environment with a relative humidity of 90%. It is more difficult to absorb moisture than sucrose. This feature is suitable for the production of confectionery, such as tablet candy, cough drops, chewing gum, sugar coating, etc., which helps to extend the shelf life of the product. Compared with erythritol, xylitol has stronger hygroscopicity in an environment with a relative humidity of 85% or more. Erythritol is easy to crystallize and can be used in chewing gum or chocolate to provide sucrose-like properties. In some foods that do not require such rapid crystallization, it can be used with high-viscosity syrups such as maltitol to control crystallization. Erythritol has similar chemical properties to other sugar alcohols and has no reducing groups, so it has very good acid and heat stability. It will not decompose under acid or alkaline conditions, and it can remain stable under the condition of pH 2~10 for a long time. Erythritol has strong heat resistance and will not decompose or change color even if the temperature is as high as 160°C.
2) Taste characteristics
Erythritol, like other sugar alcohols, has a sweetness characteristic close to that of sucrose, about 60% to 70% of sucrose. Erythritol is a filling sweetener with refreshing sweetness and no bad bitterness. Because erythritol absorbs more calories (43kcal/g) when it is dissolved in water, it has a cool taste when consumed. It can be used to make foods with a refreshing feeling, such as chewing gum, cough drops, soft candy, etc.
When erythritol and high-intensity sweeteners are used in combination, they can mask the unpleasant taste or flavor of high-intensity sweeteners, and will produce synergistic effects in sweetness characteristics and sweetness, which can significantly improve high-intensity sweeteners Such as aspartame, sucralose, AK sugar, saccharin and other taste characteristics.
3. Application of erythritol in sugar-free, low-energy candy
Erythritol has many excellent properties suitable for the production of candies. Erythritol and liquid maltitol can be used to produce various candies of good quality. The texture and shelf life of the product are exactly the same as traditional products. By adjusting the boiling temperature of the syrup and the number of seeds added, the softness and hardness of the soft candy texture can be controlled. Erythritol is easy to pulverize and has low hygroscopicity, which is suitable as a sweetener for chewing gum, and the chewing gum has a cool entrance, low calorie, and non-corrosive.
1) Erythritol produces sugar-free soft candy
Gummy candies are also called jelly candies. With their unique flavor and taste, they form a large category among many varieties of candies, and have always been favored by consumers. Because sucrose is used in the traditional method of producing jelly, the product is often not suitable for diabetics and obese people. The sugar-free soft candies produced with erythritol and maltitol can meet the needs of such consumers.
(1) Raw material formula: erythritol 43%, liquid maltitol (75%) 49.3%, water 9%, pectin 2.2%, citric acid 0.5%, appropriate amount of fruit flavor, appropriate amount of food coloring;
(2) Process flow: (water, sugar alcohol, pectin powder) mixing → dissolving pectin → dissolving sugar → filtering → boiling sugar → cooling → (color, flavor, citric acid) blending → casting → cooling → demoulding → Dry → mix sand → pack;
(3) Operating points: first mix the pectin powder with sugar alcohol, and then dissolve it, which is beneficial to the dispersion and full dissolution of the pectin powder. When boiling, boil the water first, then add the mixture of pectin and sugar alcohol. While melting, continue heating, increase the temperature to 105~107℃, and boil the sugar for 20 minutes. Make the dry matter about 75%~80%, add color, flavor and citric acid, and mix well. Add pigments and flavors to the sugar solution, and then add citric acid solution. Premature addition of acid will easily cause the decomposition of pectin and affect the gel strength. The casting should be completed after adding acid. If the coagulation and cutting method is used, then after adding citric acid, it should be quickly poured into the cold plate to cool; if the casting method is used, an appropriate amount of buffer should be added to delay the gel speed. Since the sugar concentration is about 78% when the mold is poured, the moisture content is high, and the taste of the candy is not good, it should be dried at 50~55℃ for about 24 hours, and the moisture content should be controlled at 16%~20% at the end of drying. The finished product is polished, sanded, and packaged to obtain the finished product. The finished jelly is transparent, elastic and tough, and can be adjusted to refreshing, fruity and milky flavors. Ingesting sugar alcohol-containing jelly will not cause dental caries and increase blood sugar levels.
2) Production of sugar-free chewing gum with erythritol
The application of erythritol in the production of sugar-free chewing gum has the following advantages: pure natural products, no calories
The following is the technological formula of flaky mint-flavored sugar-free chewing gum:
(1) Raw material formula: colloid 30.0%, erythritol powder 55.0%, maltitol syrup 13.0%, glycerin 2.0%, mint flavor;
(2) Process flow: raw materials → mixing and stirring → extrusion → calendering → cooling → cutting → maturation → aging → packaging;
(3) Operating points: After the gum base is heated to 60℃ and softened, add it to the mixer, add maltitol syrup, add 1/3 erythritol and mix for 6 min, add 1/2 glycerin and mix for 1 min, add 1/3 Mix the erythritol for 6 min, add another 1/2 glycerin and mix for 1 min, add the remaining 1/3 erythritol and mix for 6 min. The stirred and adjusted sugar dough is cooled to 40°C, and then put into the extruder for extrusion molding, and sent to the aging room for cooling and aging. The temperature is controlled at about 20°C and the relative humidity is below 55%. The purpose of cooling and aging is to make the sugar tablets reach moisture balance and harden to ensure the smooth progress of the molding process. The sugar tablets with stable physical properties after aging are packaged. Gum candy with good appearance, structure, chewiness and stability can be prepared by the above process.
- Fructo Oligosaccharide
- Malt Oligosaccharide