What is Dietary Fiber?
Dietary fiber is a carbohydrate that cannot be digested by the human body. It can be divided into two basic types when dissolved in water: soluble fiber and insoluble fiber. Cellulose, partial hemicellulose and lignin are three common types of water-insoluble fibers, which are found in plant cell walls; while pectin and gums are water-soluble fibers, which are found in non-fibrous substances in nature. Common foods such as barley, beans, carrots, citrus, flax, oats and oat bran are rich in water-soluble fiber. Water-soluble fiber can slow down the speed of digestion and excrete cholesterol most quickly, and help regulate immune system function , To promote the excretion of toxic heavy metals in the body. Therefore, the blood sugar and cholesterol in the blood can be controlled above the ideal level, and it can also help diabetic patients to improve insulin levels and triglycerides.
Insoluble fibers include cellulose, lignin, and some hemicelluloses, as well as wheat bran, corn bran, celery, peel and root vegetables from food. Insoluble fiber can reduce the risk of intestinal cancer. It can also prevent constipation and diverticulitis by absorbing toxic substances in food, and reduce the toxins excreted by bacteria in the digestive tract. Most plants contain both water-soluble and water-insoluble fiber, so a balanced intake of water-soluble and water-insoluble fiber in the diet can achieve different benefits.
Ⅰ. Daily intake standard of dietary fiber
Daily dietary fiber intake recommended by relevant international organizations:
American Cancer Prevention Association recommended standard: 30-40 grams per person per day;
The recommended standard of the European Community Food Science Committee: 30 grams per person per day.
The World Food and Agriculture Organization recommends the normal population intake: 27 grams per person per day.
The Chinese Nutrition Society proposed the amount and range of dietary fiber intake of Chinese residents:
low-energy diet 1800kcal is 25g/day;
Medium energy diet 2400kcal is 30g/day;
High-energy diet 2800 kcal is 35g/day.
Ⅱ. Main function of dietary fiber
1. Promote intestinal peristalsis, soften stools, prevent constipation, colon cancer and rectal cancer
2. Reduce blood cholesterol and triglycerides, which is good for obesity
3. Remove toxins from the body and prevent skin problems such as stain formation and acne
4. Reduce the absorption of carbohydrates in the intestines and lower blood sugar after meals
5. Promote the proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the intestines and improve the absorption capacity of the body
Ⅲ. People who are suitble for dietary fiber
1. People with dry stool, habitual constipation, abdominal distension, indigestion, obesity
2. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, arteriosclerosis, stones, etc.
3. People with diabetes, especially those with unstable blood sugar after meals
4. People with pigmentation, dark yellow face, acne
Ⅳ. Food source of dietary fiber
Brown rice and germ-polished rice, as well as corn, millet, barley, wheat husk (rice bran) and wheat flour (material of black bread), etc.
Cereals; in addition, root vegetables and seaweeds contain more dietary fiber, such as burdock, carrots, green beans, red beans, peas, potatoes and wakame. Dietary fiber is a plant component, and plant food is a natural food source of dietary fiber. Dietary fiber is rich in vegetables and fruits, whole grains, beans, fungi and algae foods. The content of dietary fiber in some common food raw materials is: Chinese cabbage 0.7%, white radish 0.8%, water spinach 1.0%, rice white 1.1%, leeks 1.1%, garlic sprouts 1.8%, Soybean sprouts 1.0%, fresh peas 1.3%, edamame 2.1%, bitter gourd 1.1%, ginger 1.4%, strawberry 1.4%, apple 1.2%, fresh jujube 1.6% , Jujube (dry) 3.1%, golden needle vegetable (dry) 6.7%, yam 0.9%, millet 1.6%, cornmeal 1.8%, mung bean 4.2%, tricholoma 6.9%, white fungus 2.6%, fungus 7.0%, kelp 9.8% As people's understanding of the relationship between dietary fiber and human health continues to deepen, some high-fiber foods are becoming more and more popular, and bacteria, algae, fruits and vegetables are in the dietary structure The proportion gradually increased. In modern food industry, raw materials rich in dietary fiber, such as rice bran, wheat bran, rye, oats, and bean dregs, are used to prepare corresponding dietary fiber products through a series of processing, which can not only develop dietary fiber products for oral administration, but also It can be used as a food additive, such as a quality improver and dietary fiber enhancer added to fermented foods such as yogurt, and baked foods such as bread. Among the many local dishes, some dishes are famous for their meat and vegetables, rich in dietary fiber, and local characteristics, and then become local famous dishes. Traditional famous dishes rich in dietary fiber, Cantonese dishes include "Snowflake Stuffed Bamboo Sun", "Emerald Reflecting Yuhuan", "Colorful Chicken Shreds", "Green Three Fighting Perch", etc.; Su dishes include "Scallion Steamed Scallops" and "Fragrant". Braised bamboo chicken with taro", "Stewed old tofu with mushrooms and shoots", "Emerald tendons", etc.; E cuisine includes "Baked meat and vegetable moss", "Stir-fried bacon with wormwood", "Lotus root simmered pork ribs", "Mianyang three steamed", and There are new-fashioned dishes such as "simmered silver carp with mouldy bean dregs", "fried pork belly with mouldy bean dregs", etc.;
There are "scallion roasted sea cucumber", "shepherd's purse fish roll", "fish wrapped in three silks", "chive fried razor clams", etc.; Sichuan cuisine includes "fish-flavored pork shreds", "boiled cabbage", "boiled pork slices" and "meat" "Final cowpea" etc.
Ⅴ. Misunderstanding of dietary fiber
Dietary fiber has been very popular in recent years because it can "clean the stomach", "prevent fat accumulation", and "relieve constipation". It has been loved by many beauty lovers and middle-aged and elderly people. The filaments that can be seen in celery are the most intuitive dietary fiber. But in fact, dietary fiber is diverse, and its health effects on the stomach and intestines vary from person to person. To sum up, almost everyone has the following three misunderstandings.
Misunderstanding 1: Fiber is only found in rough-tasting foods. According to the different physical properties, dietary fiber is divided into two types: soluble and insoluble. Insoluble fiber mainly exists in wheat bran, nuts, and vegetables. Because it cannot be dissolved, it has a rough taste. It mainly improves the function of the large intestine, including shortening the passage time of digestive residues, increasing the frequency of bowel movements, and preventing constipation and bowel cancer. This kind of fiber is in celery. Barley, beans, carrots, citrus, oats, etc. are rich in soluble fiber, which can slow down the digestion of food, stabilize blood sugar after a meal, and lower blood cholesterol levels. These foods have a more delicate taste, but also rich in Dietary fiber.
Misunderstanding 2: Fiber can discharge waste and retain nutrients. While dietary fiber prevents the human body from absorbing harmful substances, it also affects the body’s absorption of protein, inorganic salts and certain trace elements in food. Especially for young children in the growth and development stage, too much dietary fiber is likely to Some nutrients necessary for the human body are taken out of the body, causing malnutrition. Therefore, eat high-fiber foods in moderation, especially for children.
Misunderstanding 3: People with poor digestion should add more dietary fiber. Dietary fiber can indeed relieve constipation, but it can also cause flatulence and abdominal pain. People with poor gastrointestinal function eat more dietary fiber, but it will cause irritation to the gastrointestinal tract. For adults, a daily intake of 25-35 grams of fiber is sufficient.
Dietary fiber has the side effects of hindering digestion and absorption of nutrients. Therefore, people with weak stomach will feel upset when eating whole grains; people who do not drink broth and fruit juice will suffer from malnutrition after eating whole grains. It is precisely because of this that one must continue to eat whole grains under the condition of raising stomach qi and drinking broth and juice.
It is not necessary to completely abstain from eating fruits, you can eat them, because fruits contain sucrose, among which fructose does not require insulin to participate in the metabolism. Therefore, people with diabetes do not always reject fruits after their blood sugar has been controlled.
Besides, the amount of sugar in fruits varies, so they can’t be treated equally. Foods with a sugar content of less than 10 grams per 100g include green plum, watermelon, melon, coconut milk, orange, lemon, grape, peach, plum, apricot, loquat, pineapple, strawberry, sugar cane, coconut, cherry, olive, etc., diabetes People can choose. Fruits with a sugar content of 11 to 20 grams include bananas, pomegranates, grapefruits, tangerines, apples, pears, lychees, mangoes, etc. Carefully use them; those with more than 20 grams include dates and red fruits, especially dried dates, candied dates, persimmons, etc. Raisins, dried apricots, longans, etc., which have a high sugar content, are contraindicated. To
Many vegetables can be eaten as fruits, such as tomatoes, cucumbers, vegetables, etc. The sugar content per 100g of food is less than 5 grams, and it is rich in vitamins, which can completely replace fruits and is suitable for diabetics. To
In addition, you must also match your food intake, don’t stay the same. Watermelon contains 4% sugar, pear contains 12% sugar, and banana contains 20%. Although watermelon contains little sugar, 500 grams of water is equivalent to 100 grams of bananas and 170 grams of pears, so you should not eat too much. At the same time, try to eat, that is, test urine sugar 2 hours after eating. If urine sugar increases, you need to reduce the amount; if the urine sugar is still high after the fruit is reduced, the amount of staple food should be appropriately reduced.
It is beneficial for people with diabetes to eat apples.
First of all, apples are rich in nutrients. It contains a variety of vitamins and acids. An apple contains about 30 mg or more of flavonoids. The apple contains 15% carbohydrates and pectin. It is also rich in vitamins A, C, E, potassium, and antioxidants. 1 apple (154g) dietary fiber 5g, potassium 170mg, calcium 10mg, carbohydrate 22g, phosphorus 10mg, Vc7.8g, Vb7.8g. Apples are richer in calcium than ordinary fruits, which help to metabolize excess salt in the body. Malic acid can metabolize calories and prevent lower body obesity. As for soluble fiber pectin, it can solve constipation. Pectin can also promote the discharge of lead, mercury, and manganese in the gastrointestinal tract, regulate the body's blood sugar level, and prevent the sudden rise and fall of blood sugar.
German scientists have discovered that the pectin in apples can lower cholesterol. Dutch scholars have found from long-term investigations and studies that people who eat an apple a day have increased bile excretion and bile acid concentration, which helps the liver to excrete more cholesterol. The polyphenols and flavonoids contained in apples are natural chemical antioxidants that can remove the metabolic "junk" in the body in time. Eating ripe apples can treat constipation. Eat shredded raw apples, the pectin can stop mild diarrhea. Malic acid can stabilize blood sugar and prevent diabetes in the elderly, so diabetics should eat sour apples. The sugar, lithium and bromine contained in apples is an effective sedative sleeping pill without side effects. Apples contain zinc and magnesium, so eating apples often can enhance memory and promote development of children. Because some elements in apples can eliminate the harmful lead and mercury elements in the body, European scientists call apples anti-cancer drugs.
Eat apples to chew slowly. This is not only good for digestion, but more importantly, it is good for oral hygiene and reducing human diseases. According to experiments by botanists: if an apple is eaten in 15 minutes, the organic acid and fruit acid in the apple can kill 99% of the bacteria in the mouth. Therefore, eating apples slowly is good for human health. It is beneficial for people with diabetes to eat apples.
Since malic acid can stabilize blood sugar and prevent diabetes in the elderly, people with diabetes should eat sour apples. Malic acid can metabolize calories and prevent lower body obesity. As for soluble fiber pectin, it can regulate the body's blood sugar level and prevent the sudden rise and fall of blood sugar. Diabetics eat 200 grams of apples a day (but 25 grams of rice noodles, which are the same calorie, should be reduced). They are eaten at around 10 am and 4 pm, which is beneficial to the stability and treatment of diabetes.
- Fructo Oligosaccharide
- Malt Oligosaccharide