Carbohydrates can be divided into three types: monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.
1. Different types of sugar.
Monosaccharides are structural monomers of sugars. Under normal conditions, mo一nosaccharides can no longer be broken down by water into smaller sugars. There are mainly glucose, D-galactose and D-fructose.
Disaccharides are glycosides produced by the dehydration of the hydroxyl groups on two identical or different monosaccharide molecules. The most common disaccharides in nature are sucrose and lactose. In addition, there are maltose, trehalose, isomaltose, cellobiose, chitobiose and so on.
Sugar alcohols are important derivatives of monosaccharides, such as sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, maltitol, etc.
Oligosaccharides are also called oligosaccharides. Several important oligosaccharides currently known include raffinose, stachyose, isomalto-oligosaccharides, fructooligosaccharides, mannose oligosaccharides, soybean oligosaccharides and so on. Its sweetness is usually only 30% to 60% of sucrose.
Polysaccharides are generally insoluble in water, have no sweet taste, do not form crystals, and have no reducing properties. Under the action of enzymes or acids, it is hydrolyzed into fragments with different residues of monosaccharides, and finally becomes monosaccharides. Including starch, glycogen and dietary fiber.
2. The physiological function of carbohydrates.
(1). Supply and store energy
Dietary carbohydrates are the most economical and primary source of energy for humans. Carbohydrates provide 55 to 65 percent of the energy you need to maintain your health. Carbohydrates release energy quickly in the body and supply energy quickly. They are the main energy source of nervous system and myocardium and the main fuel for muscle activity. They are of great significance for maintaining the normal energy supply of nervous system and heart, enhancing endurance and improving work efficiency.
(2). Constitute tissue and vital life matter.
Carbohydrates are important substances that constitute the body tissues and are involved in cell composition and various activities. Every cell contains carbohydrates of about 2% to 10%, mainly in the form of glycolipids, glycoproteins and proteoglycans. Some substances with important physiological functions, such as the components of antibodies, enzymes and hormones, also require carbohydrates.
(3). Protein-saving effect
When sufficient amounts of carbohydrates are consumed, protein consumption in the body or diet can be prevented without the need to use protein for energy, that is, carbohydrates have a protein-saving effect.
(4). The effect of detoxification
The glucuronic acid generated by the glucuronic acid pathway is an important combination antidote in the body. It can combine with many harmful substances such as bacterial toxin, alcohol, arsenic and so on in the liver to eliminate or reduce the toxicity or biological activity of these substances, thus playing a detoxification role.
(5). Enhance intestinal function
Non-starchy polysaccharides such as cellulose and pectin, resistant starch, functional oligosaccharides and other digestible carbohydrates can stimulate intestinal peristalsis, increase the fermentation in the colon, and the short-chain fatty acids produced by fermentation and the proliferation of intestinal flora, which are conducive to normal digestion and increase the amount of defecation.
3. Carbohydrate intake
(1). Inadequate intake
①. Memory in decline
Insufficient intake of carbohydrate food may reduce the supply of glucose required by brain cells, thus causing damage to learning, memory and thinking.
②. Affect human physiological functions
Long-term lack of staple foods in the diet can also lead to lower blood sugar levels, causing dizziness, heart palpitations, brain dysfunction, and other problems. In severe cases, it can lead to hypoglycemic coma.
③. Cause human illness
Carbohydrates are an essential factor for maintaining a healthy body. Long-term insufficient intake can lead to metabolic disorders, kidney stones, osteoporosis and other diseases.
④. Affect growth and development
Carbohydrates are the main source of human energy. Long-term lack of energy can lead to malnutrition and growth retardation.
(2). Excessive intake
①. Led to obesity
Excessive carbohydrate intake will convert the unusable glucose after decomposition into fat, thereby causing obesity.
②. Cause diabetes
Excessive carbohydrate intake will increase the body's blood sugar concentration. Long-term excess will cause damage to the pancreas, and ultimately cause insufficient insulin secretion and cause diabetes.
4. The source of carbohydrate in our daily life
The main source of starch in the diet is grains and tubers. Cereals generally contain 60% to 80% carbohydrates, 15% to 29% in potatoes, and 40% to 60% in beans. The main sources of monosaccharides and disaccharides are sucrose, candies, sweets, pastries, sweet fruits, sugary drinks and honey.
With the improvement of the current living standards, people have higher and higher dietary requirements. High carbohydrates and high energy can lead to obesity, high blood sugar and other diseases. Therefore, modern people begin to require low-sugar diets. The carbohydrate content of young barley seedling powder can be said to be basically no. It is a low-sugar food, avoiding the intake of high energy and high sugar, and its low-sugar feature is becoming more and more popular among people.
- Fructo Oligosaccharide
- Malt Oligosaccharide